The global antibiotics market size was USD 55.13 Billion in 2020 and is expected to register a CAGR of 3.9% during the forecast period. Increasing prevalence of infectious diseases, rising efforts of pharmaceutical companies to develop robust therapies to infectious diseases, and supportive government regulatory frameworks are key factors expected to drive market revenue growth over the forecast period. In addition, increasing burden of infectious and chronic diseases is leading to growing investments in R&D activities to develop novel antibiotics to treat drug-resistant infections and this is another key factor expected to contribute to revenue growth of the market going ahead.
Antibiotics are widely used agents in modern healthcare to treat and prevent bacterial infections. The pharmacology behind antibiotics involves destroying the bacterial cell by preventing cell reproduction or altering necessary cellular functions or processes. Bactericidal antibiotics kill bacteria while bacteriostatic antibiotics prevent differentiation and growth of bacteria. Antibiotics are powerful drugs and their drug-target interaction and direct effects are well characterized. Majority current bactericidal antimicrobials inhibit DNA synthesis, cell well synthesis, or protein synthesis. Since the discovery of penicillin, more and more effective antimicrobials have been discovered and developed by understanding drug-target interactions and by modification of drug molecules. Antibiotics are also commonly used in the production of bacterial and viral vaccines to prevent contamination. In addition to treatment of infectious diseases, antibiotics have made several medical procedures – including cancer treatment, open-heart surgery, and organ transplants – possible over the recent past. Antibiotics are also useful in moderate to severe exacerbations of COPD and this is also expected to further drive revenue growth of the market going ahead.
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Recent advancements in semi-synthetic antibiotics have resulted in development of better ways to combat growing antimicrobial resistance. Growing focus on understanding the molecular mechanism of natural product antibiotics to design new and novel antibiotics with different mode of actions is expected to further contribute to revenue growth of the market going ahead. Increasing side effects associated with antibiotics, growing incidence of antibiotic resistance, and rising prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacterial infections are some key factors expected to restrain market revenue growth to a certain extent going ahead.
Driver: Rising global incidence of infectious diseases is a key factor driving market growth
Infectious diseases have been highly prevalent over the last couple of decades. Several factors have contributed to emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases and can be categorized as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi. Infectious diseases are one of leading cause of death in developing and underdeveloped countries. Discovery and use of antibiotics have led to development of effective strategies to control and prevent these infectious diseases. Antibiotics have been widely used in modern healthcare sector and have played a crucial role in achieving tremendous success in medicine and surgery. Antibiotics have successfully prevented or treated infections that are prevalent in patients undergoing chemotherapy treatments or suffer from chronic diseases. Antibiotics have also extended expected life spans by enhancing outcome of bacterial infections and have significantly decreased morbidity and mortality caused by food-borne and other infections and these are some key factors expected to drive market revenue growth over the forecast period.
Restraint: Increasing recognition of antibiotic resistance as a global health problem is a key factor restraining market growth
Antibiotic resistance is recognized as a global threat to public health by the World Health Organization and according to statistical analysis, nearly several hundred death can be associated with infections with antibiotic-resistant bacteria. One of the major reasons for development of antibiotic resistance is the use, misuse, and overuse of antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance is at an all-time high across the globe despite efforts taken by WHO and other healthcare authorities. This has led to high economic burden on healthcare industry such as extended hospital stays, isolation wards, treatment failures, and stringent infection control measures. This has resulted in development and implementation of stringent policies to stop overuse and misuse of antibiotics and these are some key factors expected to restrain market growth to a certain extent going ahead.
Based on type, the global antibiotics market has been segmented into protein, DNA, RNA, cell wall synthesis inhibitors, and mycolic acid inhibitors. Cell wall synthesis inhibitors segment is expected to account for largest revenue share over the forecast period attributable to extensive usage of cell wall biosynthesis inhibitors antibiotics. Cell wall biosynthesis and bacterial cell division are crucial physiological processes for bacterial survival. Mammalian cells are devoid of a cell wall and inhibition of cell wall biosynthesis is an important approach for antibiotic discovery. Cell wall biosynthesis inhibitors are of the most frequently used class of antibiotics and their significance has been symbolized by the increasing use of glycopeptide and β-lactams antibiotics. Cell wall biosynthesis inhibitors are one the most successful class of compounds among antibiotics and have been widely used to treat drug resistant pathogens.
Based on product, the global antibiotics market has been segmented into carbapenems, penicillin, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and others. Fluoroquinolones segment is expected to register robust revenue CAGR over the forecast period owing to recent advancements in fluoroquinolones that have enhanced their antimicrobial and pharmacokinetic profiles, their increasing effectiveness in vitro against gram positive pathogens, and rising number of clinical trials to expand the clinical use of fluoroquinolones. Recently developed novel fluoroquinolones have excellent bioavailability and have longer half-lives as compared to ciprofloxacin and enables administration of one dose daily. Over the recent past, increasing number of clinical trials have been carried out to compare new fluoroquinolones to each other or to standard therapy and results have indicated they demonstrate good efficacy against a variety of community-acquired respiratory infections. In addition, the newly developed fluoroquinolones offer numerous advantages over ciprofloxacin and are emerging as crucial therapeutic agents for treating infectious diseases. These key factors are expected to further drive revenue growth of the segment going ahead.
Administration Mode Outlook:
Based on administration mode, the global antibiotics market has been segmented into oral, topical, sublingual, inhalation, and others. Oral segment is expected to dominate other administration mode segments in terms of revenue share over the forecast period. Antibiotic therapy is mainly done through oral administration of antibiotics such as penicillin, sulfonamides, and chloramphenicol, among others. In addition, oral administration of antibiotics is cost-effective and it can also help avoid adverse effects of intravenous administration. Patients with bacterial infections often require treatment with antibiotic and in such cases oral formulation is the appropriate choice.
Major advantages of oral administration over intravenous route include lack of cannula-related infections, reduction in drug costs, and minimal costs associated with health professionals and equipment required for intravenous administration of antibiotics. Oral therapy can also enable early discharge from hospital and emergency department. Some oral antibiotics also have bioavailability equivalent to intravenous drugs and they can substitute these drugs based on condition being treated and required site of drug penetration. These key factors are also expected to contribute to revenue growth of this segment over the forecast period.
Based on end-use outlook, the global antibiotics market has been segmented into hospital pharmacies, retail pharmacies, and online pharmacies. Hospital pharmacies segment is expected to register significant revenue growth over the forecast period attributable to increasing availability of broad spectrum antibiotics, growing patient pool of infectious diseases, and implementation of hospital policies to streamline and control use of antibiotics. In addition, pharmacists in hospitals have been offered critical role in antibiotic governance under the Antimicrobial Stewardship (AMS) programs that seeks to preserve viable antibiotic drugs by regulating their use in hospital settings. Increasing prescription of antibiotics for treatment of infectious and bacterial diseases is another key factor expected to drive revenue growth of the segment.
Hospital pharmacists can improve antibiotic prescription by optimizing and streamlining antibiotic selection, re-assessing antibiotic treatment after results of diagnostic testing are available, and by employing the shortest effective duration of therapy. Optimization of antibiotic use is crucial for effective treatment of infections, to protect patients from detrimental effects of unnecessary antibiotic usage, and to efficiently combat antibiotic resistance. Regulation of antibiotic usage can help clinicians improve clinical outcomes and minimize negative effects by enhancing antibiotic prescribing. These key factors are expected to further contribute to revenue growth of the segment over the forecast period.
Based on regional analysis, North America is expected to account for a significantly large revenue share over the forecast period attributable to increasing incidence of infectious diseases, rising investment and healthcare expenditure, advancements in R&D activities for the development of novel therapies for bacterial and infectious diseases, and presence of key market players in the region. In addition, over 40 candidates of antibiotics are under clinical trial in the United States and government has actively implemented antimicrobial stewardship programs to control and regulate use and prescription of antibiotics in the region and these are some other key factors expected to further contribute to revenue growth of the market in the region.
Asia Pacific is expected to register a steady revenue CAGR of 4.1% during the forecast period owing to increasing development in healthcare and research facilities, growing patient pool of infectious and bacterial diseases, rising number of pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, increasing consumption of antibiotics, and availability of generic drugs in the region. In addition, deployment of guidelines to combat antimicrobial resistance and control and prevent it by appropriate use of effective antibiotics, hospital infection prevention and control strategies, and stringent policies and regulations is another major factor expected to contribute to revenue growth of the market in Asia Pacific.
The global gene expression market is slightly fragmented with presence of several players operating on a global and regional scale. Key players are engaged in product development and strategic alliances to cater to growing global demand and gain a robust footing in the market. Major companies profiled in the market include Bristol-Myers Squibb Co., AstraZeneca Plc, The Menarini Group, GlaxoSmithKline plc, Bayer HealthCare AG, Eli Lilly and Company, Merck & Co., Inc., Johnson & Johnson, Novartis AG, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., and Sanofi.
CODA, which stands for Comparing Outcomes of Antibiotic Drugs and Appendectomy, is the largest ever randomized clinical trial for appendicitis treatment. Final results of CODA suggests antibiotics can now be considered as the first-line treatment for majority patients with appendicitis. The clinical trial was carried out 25 hospitals across 14 states with 1,552 participants and were randomized to receive antibiotics or undergo an appendectomy. Comparison of antibiotic treatment with appendectomy in patients with appendicitis suggested that patients who later underwent appendectomy was 40% in one year and 46% at two years. The CODA study findings have been published in the New England Journal of Medicine.
Segments Covered in the Report:
This report offers historical data and forecasts revenue growth at a global, regional, and country level, and provides analysis of the market trends in each of the sub-segments from 2019 to 2030. For the purpose of this report, Reports and Data has segmented the antibiotics market based on type, product outlook, administration mode, end use, and region:
Antibiotics Market Report Scope
Segments covered By Type Outlook, Product Outlook, Administration Route Outlook, Regional Outlook
By Type Outlook
Cell Wall Synthesis Inhibitors
Mycolic Acid Inhibitors
By Product Outlook
By Administration Route Outlook
By End Use Outlook
Middle East & Africa
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